1. Shaw v. Reno, 113 S. Ct. 1993, 2827.

  2. Shaw v. Reno, 2818.

  3. Characteristics that define any culturally coherent group abound in the literature of the social sciences and thus, the elements of "ethnicity" may also apply to Blacks, as suggested in a recent study of his subject:  "a human population with myths of a common ancestry, shared historical memories, one or more       elements of common culture, a link with a homeland and a sense of solidarity among at least some of its members.  John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, Ethnicity (New York:  Oxford University Press, 1996), 6.

  4. "Polls Paint Picture Of Who Voted, and How," USA TODAY,        4 November, 1998, 18A.

  5. Robert Singh, The Congressional Black Caucus (Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications, 1996), 145.

  6. David Bositis, "the Congressional Black Caucus and the 103rd
    Congress" (Washington, DC:  Joint Center for Political and         Economic Studies, 1993), 19.

  7. Shaw v. Reno, 2818.

  8. Carol Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests:  The Representation of African Americans in Congress (Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard University Press, 1993).

  9. Leslie G. Carr, "Color-Blind" Racism (Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications, 1997) 126.


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November 1999