1. In Georgia the challenge to the 11th Congressional District emerged as Johnson v. Miller (1994), the challenge in Louisiana emerged as Hays v. Louisiana (1994), in Texas the challenge surfaced as Vera v. Richards (1994), a remand of the Supreme Court's 1993 Shaw decision in North Carolina produced Shaw v. Hunt (1994), and in Florida an unsuccessful challenge by a white plaintiff produced Johnson v. Smith (1994). Also, in the mid 90s there were two significant cases brought under Section 2 of the VRA: Holder v. Hall (1994) and Johnson v. DeGrandy (1994).

  2. Phase I interviews started in the Washington, D. C. area in late December, 1994, and continued in 1995 during legislative session in Virginia in February, North Carolina in April, in South Carolina in mid-May, in Georgia during the second half of May. The middle of June was set aside in case back up dates were necessary. Phase II interviews continued during 1996 during and outside of legislative session in Louisiana in early June, in Texas in late June, in Mississippi in early August, and in Alabama in late August.

  3. The breakdown by state is: Alabama 37; Georgia 42; Louisiana 27; Mississippi 20; North Carolina 19; South Carolina 27; Texas 23; and Virginia 11. In addition, I identified 14 African American members of Congress, some of whom had been elected to statewide office.





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November 1999