- In Georgia the
challenge to the 11th Congressional District emerged as Johnson v. Miller (1994), the
challenge in Louisiana emerged as Hays v. Louisiana (1994), in Texas the challenge
surfaced as Vera v. Richards (1994), a remand of the Supreme Court's 1993 Shaw decision in
North Carolina produced Shaw v. Hunt (1994), and in Florida an unsuccessful challenge by a
white plaintiff produced Johnson v. Smith (1994). Also, in the mid 90s there were two
significant cases brought under Section 2 of the VRA: Holder v. Hall (1994) and Johnson v.
- Phase I interviews
started in the Washington, D. C. area in late December, 1994, and continued in 1995 during
legislative session in Virginia in February, North Carolina in April, in South Carolina in
mid-May, in Georgia during the second half of May. The middle of June was set aside in
case back up dates were necessary. Phase II interviews continued during 1996 during and
outside of legislative session in Louisiana in early June, in Texas in late June, in
Mississippi in early August, and in Alabama in late August.
- The breakdown by state
is: Alabama 37; Georgia 42; Louisiana 27; Mississippi 20; North Carolina 19; South
Carolina 27; Texas 23; and Virginia 11. In addition, I identified 14 African American
members of Congress, some of whom had been elected to statewide office.