34. Ibid., 77.

35. Ibid., 87.

36. Lewis, 54; and DuBois, 88.

37. Ibid., 102.

38. Ibid., 108.

39. Lewis, 85-90.

40. McFeely, 92-93.

41. Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 271, 279.

42. DuBois, Ibid., 14.

43. Harlan.

44. McFeely , 120; and Lewis, 127.

45. Harlan, 266.

46. McFeely, 150.

47. Harlan, 204; see August Meier, Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1963), Part Three: "The Significance of Booker T. Washington."

48 Harlan, Black Leader, devotes an entire chapter to Washington's Atlanta speech and its aftermath. Washington included entire text in his Up From Slavery, chapter 14, entitled "The Atlanta Exposition Address."

49. Washington, 129 (for quotation located in edition used in this essay).

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August 1999