16. Douglass, 115.

17. Ibid., 158.

18. Ibid., 268.

19. Ibid., 144.

20. William S. McFeely, Frederick Douglass (New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1991), 78.

21. Douglass, 355.

22. Ibid., 250.

23. Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969),   19-20.

24. Washington, 16.

25. Ibid., 17.

26. Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), 40-51.

27. Washington, 36.

28. Ibid., 31.

29. Quoted in Harlan, 56.

30. Washington, 53.

31. Ibid.

32. Harlan, 62-63.

33. DuBois, 76.

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August 1999