All three of these outstanding African Americans made the world their stage; all three had major roles in the legacy and struggles of the race. Each of them not only seized the opportunities before them, but used them to enlarge the ideologies of the struggle of African Americans to be truly free. Frederick A. Douglass, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois each occupy large spaces in our libraries and in our living dialogues about freedom. This essay has been a brief review of some of the individual circumstances from which they projected themselves into the struggle which continues as we end this millennium.

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August 1999