Washington, Booker T.

Meier, August. Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915; Racial Ideologies in the Age of Booker T. Washington. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1963.

Wells-Barnett, Ida B.

Giddings, Paula.  " 'To Sell My Life as Dearly as Possible': Ida B. Wells and the First Antilynching Campaign." In When and Where I Enter...The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America,.  N. Y.: William Morrow & Co., 1984, 408p., p. 17-31

Williams, Fannie Barrier

Williams, Fannie Barrier. "Religious Duty To The Negro."  In Black Women in Nineteenth-Century American Life: Their Words, Their Thoughts, Their Feelings, ed. Bert James Loewenberg and Ruth Bogin, 263-279, University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.


DuBois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction In America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880.  N. Y.:  S. A. Russell, 1935.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. The Trouble They Seen: Black People Tell the Story of Reconstruction. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1976.

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August 1999