Therefore there should be on the part of all, accompanied with the desire for the restoration of the Union, attention to all those safeguards and securities which, under the circumstances, it is possible for us either to erect or to take.

    Again, consider that the restoration of the Union implies the renewal of power on the part of nearly four million people who, for the present moment, are excluded from all participation in the Government of the country. It implies, also, the exercise of power on the part of their posterity and successors through many generations; and if we accept them as they are, with supreme power in their respective localities and States vested in the hands of rebels, with all the institutions which control and mould public sentiment subject to their will, we cannot expect that in five or ten or twenty or fifty years even, the spirit of rebellion will be extinguished in that section of country.  In the ten States that are not represented in the Congress of the United States there were, in 1960, 4,620,000 white people; there were at that time 125,000 free colored persons; there were also 3,265,000 slaves, making an aggregate of colored persons of 3,390,000, against 4,620,000 white persons. These ten States have an area of 635,454 square miles - about one fifth of the entire surface of the Union, including all the Territories that are but partially settled this side of the Rocky mountains, and the vast mountain region between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. These ten states have a population at present of rather more than eight million; they have an area of 635,000 square miles; they have, for the most part, a fertile soil; they are blessed with a salubrious and agreeable climate; they possess all the natural advantages which insure in the future a vast population. It is therefore a matter of the highest magnitude to so arrange the details of reconstruction and to proceed upon such principles as shall secure to the country a loyal public sentiment in all that region.

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August 1999