1. Quoted in Crossing the Danger Water: Three Hundred Years of African American Writing, by Dierdre Mullane, editor (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1993), 421.

2. "Frederick Douglass's Speech to the Thirty-second Annual Convention of the American Anti-Slavery Society," from  Crossing the Danger Water, by Mullane, 309.

3. Mullane, 310.

4. Mullane, 311.

5. Booker T. Washington, "The Atlanta Exposition Address," from Mullane,  364-367.

6. Arthur L. Smith, Rhetoric of Black Revolution (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1969), 102.

7. W.E.B. DuBois, "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others," from The Souls of Black Folk, quoted in Mullane, 372-373.

8. Mullane, 376.

9. W.E.B. DuBois, "The Talented Tenth," from The Negro Problem, quoted in Mullane, 382.

10. Mullane, 384.

11. Mullane, 386.

12. Mullane, 390.

13. Quoted in Afro American History: The Modern Era, by Herbert Apthecker (New York:  The Citadel Press, 1971), 123.

14. Kelly Miller, Radicals and Conervatives and Other Essays on the Negro in American (New York:  Schocken Books, 1968),  25-26.

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August 1999