1I. N.P. Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, New York, 1498-1909.  ( New York:  Dodd and Company, 1915-1922).  See also, Calendar of Dutch Historical Manuscripts in the Office of the Secretary of State, Albany, New York, 1630-1664.  Vol. X, Part III, Council Minutes. Edited by E.B. O’Callaghan.  (Weed, Parsons and Company, 1865), 258-259.

2Although the original eleven Africans and their wives were granted “half-free” status in 1644, their children were to remain enslaved.  In response to the charge that “it is contrary to the laws of every people that any one born of a free Christian mother should be a slave and be compelled to remain in servitude,” Dutch West India Company secretary, Cornelius van Tienhoven, argued that only three such children continued to “do any service.”  One of them was housed with Martin Creiger “who has brought the girl up well, as everybody knows.”  See J. Franklin Jameson, ed., Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664.  (New York:  Charles Scribner and Sons, 1909), 330 and 365.


4Edgar McManus,   History of Negro Slavery in New York.  (Syracuse, NY:   Syracuse University Press, 1966).

5Christine Stansell, City of Women:  Sex and Class in New York, 1789-1860 (Urbana, IL:  University of Illinois Press, 1987).  See also Joyce Goodfriend, “Black Families in New Netherland.”   Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society 5 (1984), 95-107.

 6Rita Suisswein Gottisman,ed.  The Arts and Crafts in New York, 1726-1776:  Advertisements and News Items from New York City Newspapers (New York:   New York Historical Society, 1938).

7Barbara Bush, Slave Women in Caribbean Society, 1650-1838.  (Bloomington, Ind.:   Indiana University Press, 1990), 67.

8For a discussion of women involved in struggle to defend their villages, see Robert J. Allison, ed., The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Written by Himself.  (Boston:  Bedford Books, 1995), 40. 

9See David Barry Gaspar, “From `the Sense of their Slavery’:  Slave Women and Resistance in Antigua, 1632-1763.”  In David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine, More Than Chattel:  Black Women and Slavery in the Americas (Bloomington, Ind.:  Indiana University Press, 1996), 218-238.


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