10For differing ideas on the origins of West African slave systems, see, for example, William D. Phillips' Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade (Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 1985), 118. See also Walter Rodney, who emphasizes the influence of European traders in the development of African slavery. Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (Washington DC: Howard University Press, 1982). 95-97 especially. Basil Davidson also highlights the impact of the ‘degrading effect’ of European chattel slavery on traditional African slavery. Basil Davidson,  The Search for Africa; a History in the Making London: James Currey, 1994), 11.

11Unlike Jamaican slavery, “being born into slavery provided the enslaved with some added rights and protections in comparison to those enslaved after birth…"  Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life (New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1990), 88. 

12For a more complete analysis of the traditional forms of slavery that existed in Africa prior to the coming of the Europeans, see Manning,  Slavery and African Life, 88-89. See also Phillips, Slavery from Roman Times, 114-127.

13Karen Fog Olwig,  "African Cultural Principles," in Slave Cultures, ed.  Stephen Palmié (Knoxville:  University of Tennessee Press, 1995), 23-29. 

14Paul E. Lovejoy, "Fugitive Slaves," in In Resistance, ed. Gary Y. Okihiro (Amherst:  University of Massachusetts Press, 1986), 78.

15Klein and Lovejoy, Slavery in West Africa, 181-212.

16C.L.R. James The Black Jacobins; Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York:  Vintage Books), 1963.  

17This intellectualism wrought havoc in the French colony of St. Domingue and achieved there in 1791 what French philosophers and revolutionaries had failed to achieve in 1790 Revolutionary France.

18These rights emerged out of tradition and were a consequence of the easier pace of West African slavery which “made relatively light demands on domestic slaves.” Richard S. Sheridan, Sugar and Slavery; An Economic History of the British West Indies (Eagle Hall, Barbados:  Caribbean University Press, 1974), 241.  See also Olwig "African Cultural Principles," 29.

19For a fuller bibliographical discussion on the place of African retentions “that informed the way in which slaves experienced the institution of slavery,” see Olwig, "African Cultural Principles," 25-32.


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