1 Spirit, Space and Survival: African-American Women in (White) Academe, edited by Joy James and Ruth Farmer (New York: Routledge, 1993), 223.

2 The quotes appear, respectively, in the following, Ann DuCille, "The Occult of True Black Womanhood," Skin Trade (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), 97; Patricia J. Williams, The Alchemy of Race and Rights (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), 56; Elizabeth Alexander, "Memory, Community, Voice," Callaloo 17/2 (Spring 1994), 409.

3 See, for example, Spirit, Space and Survival.

4Gina Mercer, "Feminist Pedagogy to the Letter: A Musing on Contradictions, "Knowing Feminisms: On Academic Borders, Territories and Tribes, edited by Liz Stanley (London: New Sage Publications, 1997), 42.

5Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, "African American Women's History and the Metalanguage of Race," Signs 17/2, 251-274; Beverly Guy-Sheftall, "Introduction," Words of Fire (New York: The New Press), 1-22; Elsa Barkley Brown, "Womanist Consciousness: Maggie Lena Walker and the Independent Order of St. Luke," Unequal Sisters, 2nd Edition, edited by Vicki L. Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois (New York: Routledge), 268-283.

6Among the scholars who have influenced my still-in-process ideas about pedagogy are All the Women are White, All the Blacks are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave, edited by Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott and Barbara Smith (New York: The Feminist Press, 1982); Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Continuum, 1970); bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989); bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom ((New York: Routledge, 1994). The conclusion of Spirit, Space and Survival, also talks about developing a "pedagogy of transformation and empowerment," 219.


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