1. Garland Penn, The Afro-American Press and Its Editors (Springfield, Massachusetts, l89l), 28.
  2. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Negro Population in the United States, l790-l9l5, (Washington, DC:  GPO, 1918), 33.
  3. Freedom’s Journal, March 16, 1827.
  4. Frederic Hudson, Journalism in the United States from l690 to l872 (New York:  Haskell,   l872), 738-740.
  5. Mary Sagarin, John Brown Russwurm (New York:  Lothrop & Shepard Co., l970), 7l.
  6. Freedom's Journal, March 28, l829.
  7. Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism (New York:  Macmillan,  l969), 182.
  8. Lorenzo J. Greene, The Negro in Colonial New England (New York:  Columbia University Press, l942), ll4; Lorenzo J. Greene and Carter G. Woodson, The Negro Wage Earner (Washington, DC:   The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1930; reissued New York, 1969) 6, l4.


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February 2000