1. There were several waves of migration which occurred during the 1860s, Reconstruction, the 1890s, World War I and the 1920s. The Black population of Cleveland doubled during the 1920s. The 1860s and Reconstruction migrants consisted of former slaves escaping the discriminatory treatment in the South. The remaining waves of migrants came to Cleveland to escape Southern oppression and to work in the booming industries. See David A. Gerber, Black Ohio and the Color Line: 1860-1915, 275; William Wayne Giffin, "The Negro in Ohio, 1914-1939," (Ph.D. Diss., The Ohio State University, 1969): 8-9; Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 38.
  2. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 98-99.
  3. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 98-99. See also August Meier, "Negro Class Structure and Ideology in the Age of Booker T. Washington," Phylon (23): Fall, 1963, 258-266. The Meier article primarily explains the relationship between Booker T. Washington's ideology and the existing, yet changing Black class structure during the period of Washington's prominence: 1890s to 1915. Included are descriptions of the occupations held by Blacks prior to the Great Migration.
  4. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 55-56.
  5. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 209,214-215.
  6. Christopher G. Wye, "Midwest Ghetto: Patterns of Negro Life and Thought in Cleveland, Ohio, 1929-1945," (Ph.D. Diss., Kent State University, 1973): 392-394.
  7. These factions included the International Worker's League, Trade Union Unity League, League of Struggle for Negro Rights and International Labor Defense. The latter spearheaded the defense for the Scottsboro defendants.
  8. Wye, "Midwest Ghetto," 396.
  9. Wye, "Midwest Ghetto," 398, 400.
  10. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 264; Wye, "Midwest Ghetto," 401.
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February 2000