- Kenneth L. Meier and Elliott Rudwick, From Plantation to Ghetto
(New York, 1976): 244-45, 253-54. This was also the Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black
Cleveland, 1870-1930 (Chicago, 1976): 236, 248; August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, From
Plantation to Ghetto (New York, 1976): 244-45, 253-54. This was also the theme of the
intellectual and literary movement of the Harlem Renaissance. See Alain Locke (ed), The
New Negro: An Interpretation (New York, 1968). Locke's essay interpreting the New
Negro is on pages 3-19.
- Vishnu Oak, The Negro
Newspaper (Westport, Ct., 1948): 126; John Syrjamaki, "The Negro Press in
1938," Sociology and Social Research 24 (1939-40): 43-52.
- Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes
Shape, 157; Felecia G. Jones Ross, "Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black
Papers' Response to the Great Migration," Journalism Quarterly (71) 3, 531.
- John Hope Franklin, From
Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (New York, 1994): 311; Kusmer, A
Ghetto Takes Shape, 165-173; Meier and Rudwick, From Plantation to Ghetto,
237. See also Gilbert Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto (New York, 1966);
Allan H. Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of Negro Ghetto, 1890-1920 (Chicago,
- John C. Nerone, "A
Local History of the Early U.S. Press: Cincinnati, 1793-1848." In William S. Solomon
and Robert W. McChesney (eds), Ruthless Criticism: New Perspectives in U.S. Communication
History (Minneapolis, 1993): 38-40.
- Nerone, "A Local
History of the Early U.S. Press: Cincinnati, 1793-1848," 40.
- See Dan Carter, Scottsboro:
A Tragedy of the American South (Baton Rouge, La., 1979): 49. Cleveland was second
behind New York in Communist Party membership. See also Simeon Booker, Jr., "Are the
Communists Winning Negro Converts?" The Cleveland Call and Post, Sept., 17,
- Daniel W. Pfaff, "The
Press and the Scottsboro Rape Cases, 1931-32," Journalism History 1 (Autumn,