NOTES

  1. Kenneth L. Meier and Elliott Rudwick, From Plantation to Ghetto (New York, 1976): 244-45, 253-54. This was also the Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870-1930 (Chicago, 1976): 236, 248; August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, From Plantation to Ghetto (New York, 1976): 244-45, 253-54. This was also the theme of the intellectual and literary movement of the Harlem Renaissance. See Alain Locke (ed), The New Negro: An Interpretation (New York, 1968). Locke's essay interpreting the New Negro is on pages 3-19.
  2. Vishnu Oak, The Negro Newspaper (Westport, Ct., 1948): 126; John Syrjamaki, "The Negro Press in 1938," Sociology and Social Research 24 (1939-40): 43-52.
  3. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 157; Felecia G. Jones Ross, "Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers' Response to the Great Migration," Journalism Quarterly (71) 3, 531.
  4. John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (New York, 1994): 311; Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape, 165-173; Meier and Rudwick, From Plantation to Ghetto, 237. See also Gilbert Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto (New York, 1966); Allan H. Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of Negro Ghetto, 1890-1920 (Chicago, 1967).
  5. John C. Nerone, "A Local History of the Early U.S. Press: Cincinnati, 1793-1848." In William S. Solomon and Robert W. McChesney (eds), Ruthless Criticism: New Perspectives in U.S. Communication History (Minneapolis, 1993): 38-40.
  6. Nerone, "A Local History of the Early U.S. Press: Cincinnati, 1793-1848," 40.
  7. See Dan Carter, Scottsboro: A Tragedy of the American South (Baton Rouge, La., 1979): 49. Cleveland was second behind New York in Communist Party membership. See also Simeon Booker, Jr., "Are the Communists Winning Negro Converts?" The Cleveland Call and Post, Sept., 17, 1949, 12-A.
  8. Daniel W. Pfaff, "The Press and the Scottsboro Rape Cases, 1931-32," Journalism History 1 (Autumn, 1974): 72.

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February 2000